Brainstorming is a tried-and-true approach to generating
useful new ideas—most of the time. But there are many factors that can get in
the way of a successful brainstorming session. For example:
- Lack of focus (what, exactly, is the purpose of this
- Lack of organization (where are we headed, and why?).
- Collecting the wrong people (who are either too high, too
low, or only peripherally involved).
- Participants who feel disempowered (or too empowered).
- Too much criticism too soon (brainstorming is intended to
encourage out-of-the-box thinking). Failing to prepare participants for what’s
being asked of them (people may arrive unprepared).
- Poor facilitation (facilitation is an art—and sometimes
requires a professional).
- Getting off topic (it’s easy to get bogged down in issues
surrounding the topic).
- Failing to follow up (your session produced great ideas that
were never explored).
To plan for a successful brainstorming session with optimal
outcomes, it’s important to look ahead, choose the right people to participate
and facilitate, and know exactly what you want your outcome to be.
In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to brainstorm effectively as a team: from addressing initial concerns, to how to run a session well, rank the best ideas your group generates, and ultimately decide which new ideas to take action on.
Before Scheduling Your Brainstorming Session
Here is a list of six important criteria to consider initially so you set up your brainstorming session with the maximum chance for success:
1. Be Sure You Really Want to Brainstorm
Brainstorming can be a great way to help your team to
feel engaged in the process. When you invite brainstorming, you’re letting
people know you’re open to their ideas. But before you jump in, be sure brainstorming
is really appropriate at this point in the project.
Are you truly open to new
ideas, or actually trying to get buy-in for a fait accompli? If you actually
have all the project details in hand, brainstorming can be counter-productive. That’s because it sets up an unrealistic expectation that employees will have a say in
the project’s direction.
2. Write Down Your Brainstorming Goal(s)
Remember, you need goals both for the session itself and for follow-up. Everything
you do before, during, and after your brainstorming session should refer back
to your goals. After all, if you don’t know why you’re brainstorming then why bother?
3. Have Clarity on the Input You’re Wanting
Be sure you know what
kind of brainstorming input you’re aiming for and what the interpersonal dynamics
are likely to be. When you know that, you can select the best brainstorming
method for your particular needs.
For example, if you’re planning to include
your entire team—managers, implementers, and support staff—you might choose
to use a “brainwriting” approach. This method allows individuals to write down
their thoughts rather than speak aloud. In some cases, this can reduce tension
and lower concerns about being seen as “foolish” in front of peers or managers. Learn more about how to use brainwriting:
4. Invite the Appropriate Participants
Based on your
understanding of the goals, purpose, and process, make up a list of invitees.
Do your best to be sure that the list includes individuals who are directly
involved with managing and implementing the project you have in mind.
make your selections, think about the dynamics of the brainstorming process. Is
a particular individual likely to slow things down or create friction? If so,
is he or she really critical to the brainstorming process?
5. Choose a Venue that Fits Your Group Best
Based on all you’ve
done so far, select a venue that will be comfortable and inspirational, but not so comfortable or inspirational that participants fall asleep, start
checking their email, or go off on tangents.
In other words, a comfortable
meeting room is a great choice, but too much terrific scenery can be a
distraction. Coffee and snacks are great, but a buffet can lead to chatting,
plate refilling, and other activities that distract from the process.
6. Work With an Experienced Facilitator
Select a facilitator
with real, meaningful brainstorming experience and training. Give that
person all the information he/she needs to manage the group and lead the
process toward the goals and plans you have in mind. If you plan to facilitate,
learn all you can about the process so that you’re able to encourage creativity
for a positive, useful brainstorming session.
How to Run Your Brainstorming
Now let’s dig into how to run your brainstorming session effectively, from setting the scene, to coming up with ideas, ranking them, and troubleshooting issues as needed.
1. Set the Scene
Before you start brainstorming, give your group the
information they need to be successful. Some of that information relates to the
brainstorming process—and some to personal comfort! Be sure to cover these
- Set the scene by presenting your goals, describing the
brainstorming process and expectations for activities following the meeting,
and clearly outlining the schedule by which they will be achieved.
- Share critical information that your team will need:
location of bathrooms, plans for food breaks, anticipated completion time,
assumptions regarding use of cell phones, availability of coffee, etc. If you
fail to provide this information, there’s a good chance your participants will
spend much of their time trying to get the answers from one another!
- Tell participants—literally—where to sit. Bear in mind
that it’s often a good idea to split up social and/or work groups, both to
increase creativity and also to reduce kibitzing in the corners.
- Introduce the facilitator and describe his/her role. If that
person is you, explain your own role. Make it clear that the facilitator’s word
is law: if he/she says “time’s up,” then the time is up!
- Write, post, and answer questions about rules and procedures.
This may include a repetition of the “hold your critique” rule, limits on
speaking time, limits on critical comments, procedures for asking for the
floor, etc. Tell people whether you intend to ask each person to speak, or whether
you’re open to raised hands.
- Nominate a time-keeper and/or put a clock front and center.
- Nominate a note-taker and provide him/her with whiteboard,
flipchart, or other tools needed.
2. Move Your Session Forward
Now with the scene set, goals and ground rules in place, it’s time to begin. Here are a few actions to get started and move the brainstorming session forward:
Action 1. Start With an Icebreaker
In brainstorming, everyone is equal. Icebreaking sessions are a good way to
establish this idea by playing games in which everyone has an equal role. It’s
also a great way to start creative juices flowing.
Icebreakers can include
games such as “if you could choose a superpower, which would it be, and why?”
or “what animal best represents you, and why?” The key to success with such
icebreakers is to include everyone: no one gets to “pass” because they think
the idea is silly!
Action 2. Limber Up
the brainstorming process with a low-risk, project-related question that allows
everyone to toss in an idea without serious concerns about “looking
silly.” Be sure everyone speaks up at
least once. For example, ask “if you could ask a genie to solve our problem or complete our project, etc., then what would you ask the genie to do?” You may
discover that people have very different ideas about what to wish for—and it’s
those different ideas you’re searching for through the brainstorming process.
Action 3. Get Started
the facilitator to take over completely (unless you are the facilitator, of
course). Be sure the facilitator remembers to reiterate the “all ideas are good
ideas” rule, and encourages everyone to speak. Follow the rules and schedule
you’ve set up.
Action 4. Record Everything!
addition to having your note taker take notes, do record the session using
either audio or video (depending upon your preference, needs, and setup).
3. Troubleshoot Brainstorming Problems
As you get into the brainstorming process, you may run into
one or more common challenges. Here’s how to recognize and resolve them:
Problem 1. Drying Up or Becoming Repetitive
At some point, your group will have a hard time coming up with
additional ideas. Sometimes that’s because they’ve really expressed all their
thoughts. Often, though, they may need a coffee break or a little time to
think. If a break doesn’t result in additional creativity, try going back to a
few of the ideas that have already been expressed. Does anyone have an idea
that relates to or builds on one of these?
Problem 2. Not Enough or Too Much Creativity
Too little creative
thinking or too much off-the-charts imagination can be problematic to effective brainstorming. While it’s great to think creatively,
ridiculous suggestions intended to get a laugh (Let’s deal with the Martians
instead of our clients!) can steer things off topic. By the same token,
extremely conservative ideas (Let’s do what we did last time, but give it a red
trim instead of a blue trim.) can stifle creative thinking.
facilitation skills to steer people back on course. Maybe the Martians aren’t
an option, but should we be thinking about reaching out to a completely
different group of clients? Maybe trim
isn’t the issue, but design may be. How can we expand our graphical approach?
Problem 3. Getting Off Topic or Lost in the Weeds
It’s very easy for discussion to steer itself away from
vision and ideation and into practical issues. For example, “It’s great to say
you want new sales material, but we’d need more staff to create that material
and…” or “We tried that idea five years ago, and it didn’t work because…”
These discussions will be important as you
move from brainstorming into working groups, so let your team know this. Ask
them to make notes and volunteer to be part of the working group that addresses
practical issues such as staffing, logistics, etc.
Problem 4. Participation Issues
Having one person
monopolize the discussion or several people “opting out” of the discussion are both problematic. Every
group has its outspoken and shy members, but brainstorming requires universal
If you anticipate or see a problem with certain people
dominating or avoiding involvement, change your approach. Try using a round-robin
technique in which each individual is asked to present their ideas, one after
the other. To avoid the problem of people spending all their time waiting to
speak, call on people in an unpredictable sequence.
Problem 5. Boredom
people get bored, off-topic chatting, cell phone use, and doodling become more
interesting than the brainstorming itself. You have a few options for avoiding
boredom. First, of course, keep your brainstorming sessions to a reasonable
length. Two days of brainstorming can leave anyone bored to tears. Second, vary
your procedures. Rather than simply asking for ideas for several hours
straight, try using multiple brainstorming techniques such as brainwriting,
starbursting, etc. If you still see restlessness in the ranks, consider the
possibility that it’s time for a break.
4. Ranking Ideas
When the brainstorming ends, the planning process gets
started. Your next move will be to select the best ideas for action. To do
that, you’ll need to facilitate a discussion that includes shifting topics into
good/better/best categories. Depending upon the size of the group and your particular
needs, you may:
- Break the group into smaller teams, ask each team to rank
ideas, and then ask each team to report.
- Point to each idea on the board and ask the entire group to
vote on which they like best.
- Take a break during which you personally rank ideas, and
then ask the group to comment on your choices.
- Ask each group member to put a mark next to their top three
ideas, and then calculate the results.
- Put the list of ideas into an accessible location and ask
individuals to post their comments about each idea over the course of several
days (this can be done with post it notes and poster paper).
Planning Your Next Steps
The whole point of brainstorming is to develop ideas for
action. Once the best ideas are selected, you’ll need to develop task force
groups to take the ideas to the next level. To do this, most managers:
- Set up working groups to think through problems and
logistics. Each group should include individuals with solid experience in the
area they’re addressing as well as people who will actually be doing the work. Ask
group members to refer back to notes they took during brainstorming.
- Create a timeline with clear objectives, goals, and
- Plan meeting times and discuss assigned tasks for each
What should working groups do? Your choice will depend upon
the granularity of the ideas, whether the ideas will need funding, whether they
will require changes to employee structure or new hires, etc.
The key to
success is not to follow a rigid system, but rather to be sure that each group
has clear, actionable objectives and goals, knows what’s expected at each
milestone, and is given the authority to make at least preliminary decisions.
You now know how to brainstorm and run a group session. Brainstorming isn’t difficult, but it does require some
solid skills—as well as flexibility and openness to new and potentially risky
ideas. To be successful, you’ll need to set clear goals, prepare carefully,
communicate clearly, troubleshoot as needed, and follow up on your brainstorming